Methylglyoxal (C3H4O2) is a small chemical side-product of glucose metabolism. It is the aldehyde form of pyruvic acid and is generated at a low level during normal glycolysis and to a lesser extent through other enzymatic and non-enzymatic biochemical processes. Methylglyoxal contributes to the formation of modified/glycated proteins and lipids with pro-inflammatory characteristics known as advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). AGEs play a role in a variety of diseases including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, and Alzheimer's. Plasma levels of methylglyoxal are elevated in patients with Type 2 diabetes. High levels of methylglyoxal also correlate with the development of diabetic nephropathy in diabetic patients. Among the initially non-demented elderly, elevated serum levels of methylgloxal have been implicated in a faster rate of cognitive decline.