Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin (SHBG)

Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a glycoprotein that binds to sex hormones, specifically testosterone and estradiol. These sex hormones circulate in the bloodstream bound mostly to SHBG and, to some degree, albumin. Only a small fraction is unbound, or "free," and thus biologically active and able to enter a cell to activate its receptor. Bioavailability of sex hormones is influenced by the level of SHBG in this manner. SHBG levels are controlled by a delicate balance of enhancing and inhibiting factors. Its level is decreased by high levels of insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). Also, high androgen levels decrease SHBG, while high estrogen and thyroxine levels increase it. Conditions with low SHBG include polycystic ovary syndrome, diabetes, and hypothyroidism. Conditions with high SHBG include pregnancy, hyperthyroidism, and anorexia nervosa.

Swiss-Prot Accession Number: P04278


Publications
Dendritic cell immunotherapy followed by cART interruption during HIV-1 infection induces plasma protein markers of cellular immunity and neutrophil recruitment (2018) van den Ham HJ, Cooper J, Tomasik J, Bahn S, Aerts J, Oseterhaus A, Gruters R, Andeweg A PLoS One
Anemia and Adverse Outcomes in a Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Population with a High Burden of Comorbidities (2018) Putcha N, Fawzy A, Paul GG, Lambert AA, Psoter KJ, Sidhaye VK, Woo J, Wells JM, Labaki WW, Doerschuk CM, Kanner RE, Han MK, Martinez C, Paulin LM, Martinez FJ, Wise RA, O'Neal WK, Barr RG, Hansei NN AnnalsATS
Serum Apolipoprotein E and Other Inflammatory Markers Can Identify Non-Responding Patients to a Dendritic Cell Vaccine (2018) Leeman H, Kaminska E, Green D, Bodman-Smith M, Gravett A, Bodman-Smith K, Copier J, Coulton G, Fusi A, Dalgleish AG Translational Oncology
Testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin and risk of cardiovascular events: A report from the Outcome Reduction with an Initial Glargine Intervention trial (2018) Wang A, Arver S, Boman K, Gerstein HC, Fu Lee S, Hess S, Ryden L, Mellbin LG Preventive Cardiology
Variation in Serum Biomarkers with Sex and Female Hormonal Status: Implications for Clinical Tests (2016) Ramsey JM, Cooper JD, Penninx BWJH, Bahn S Scientific Reports
Least absolute shrinkage and selection operator type methods for the identification of serum biomarkers of overweight and obesity: simulation and application. (2016) Vasquez MM, Hu C, Roe DJ, Chen Z, Halonen M, Guerra S BMC Med Res Methodol
Identification of plasma biomarker concentration changes resulting from the administration of the Vascular Disrupting Agent BNC105 across 3 clinical trials in mesothelioma, ovarian and renal cancer (2015) Kremmidiotis G, Leske A, Simpson J, Doolin E, Iglesias J AACR 2015
A Phase I/Ii Trial of Bnc105p with Everolimus in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma (2015) Pal S, Azad A, Bhatia S, Drabkin H, Costello B, Sarantopoulos J, Kanesvaran R, Lauer R, Starodub A, Hauke R, Sweeney CJ, Hahn NM, Sonpavde G, Richey S, Breen T, Kremmidiotis G, Leske A, Doolin E, Bibby DC, Simpson J, Iglesias J, Hutson T Clinical Cancer Research
Serum proteomic analysis identifies sex-specific differences in lipid metabolism and inflammation profiles in adults diagnosed with Asperger syndrome (2014) Steeb H, Ramsey JM, Guest PC, Stocki P, Cooper JD, Rahmoune H, Ingudomnukul E, Auyeung B, Ruta L, Baron-Cohen S, Bahn S Mol Autism. 2014 Jan 27;5(1):4
Serum proteomic analysis identifies sex-specific differences in lipid metabolism and inflammation profiles in adults diagnosed with Asperger syndrome (2014) Steeb H, Ramsey JM, Guest PC, Stocki P, Cooper JD, Rahmoune H, Ingudomnukul E, Auyeung B, Ruta L, Baron-Cohen S, Bahn S Mol Autism. 2014 Jan 27;5(1):4
Multiplex immunoassay analysis of plasma shows prominent upregulation of growth factor activity pathways linked to GSK3ß signaling in bipolar patients (2013) Haenisch F, Alsaif M, Guest PC, Rahmoune H, Dickerson F, Yolken R, Bahn S Journal of Affective Disorders
Distinct Molecular Phenotypes in Male and Female Schizophrenia Patients (2013) Ramsey JM, Schwarz E, Guest PC, Van Beveren NJM, Leweke FM, Rothermundt M, Bogerts B, Steiner J, Bahn S PLoS ONE
Associations between gonadotropins, testosterone and ß amyloid in men at risk of Alzheimer's disease (2012) Verdile G, Laws SM, Henley D, Ames D, Bush AI, Ellis KA, Faux NG, Gupta VB, Li QX, Masters CL, Pike KE, Rowe CC, Szoeke C, Taddei K, Villemagne VL, Martins RN Mol Psychiatry. 2012 Oct 23
Evidence for an antagonist form of the chemokine CXCL10 in patients chronically infected with HCV (2011) Casrouge A, Decalf J, Ahloulay M, Lababidi C, Mansour H, Vallet-Pichard A, Mallet V, Mottez E, Mapes J, Fontanet A, Pol S, Albert ML J Clin Invest. 121: 308-317.
Association of serum markers with improvement in clinical response measures after treatment with golimumab in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis despite receiving methotrexate: results from the GO-FORWARD study (2010) Visvanathan S, Rahman MU, Keystone E, Genovese M, Klareskog L, Hsia E, Mack M, Buchanan J, Elashoff M, Wagner C Arthritis Res Ther. 12:R211
Dysregulated macrophage-inflammatory protein-2 expression drives illness in bacterial superinfection of influenza. (2010) Zavitz CC, Bauer CM, Gaschler GJ, Fraser KM, Strieter RM, Hogaboam CM, Stampfli MR J Immunol 184: 2001-2013.
Molecular Analyte Profiling of the Early Events and Tissue Conditioning Following Intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guerin Therapy in Patients With Superficial Bladder Cancer. (2009) Bisiaux A, Thiounn N, Timsit MO, Eladaoui A, Chang HH, Mapes J, Mogenet A, Bresson JL, Prié D, Béchet S, Baron C, Sadorge C, Thomas S, Albert EB, Albert PS, Albert ML J Urol 181: 1571-1580.
Molecular Analyte Profiling of the Early Events and Tissue Conditioning Following Intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guerin Therapy in Patients With Superficial Bladder Cancer. (2009) Bisiaux A, Thiounn N, Timsit MO, Eladaoui A, Chang HH, Mapes J, Mogenet A, Bresson JL, Prié D, Béchet S, Baron C, Sadorge C, Thomas S, Albert EB, Albert PS, Albert ML J Urol 181: 1571-1580.