Proinsulin, Total (Proinsulin, Total)
Insulin decreases blood glucose concentration. It increases cell permeability to monosaccharides, amino acids, and fatty acids. It accelerates glycolysis, the pentose phosphate cycle, and glycogen synthesis in liver. Insulin is a heterodimer of a B chain and an A chain, linked by two disulfide bonds. Defects in INS are the cause of familial hyperproinsulinemia and are a cause of diabetes mellitus insulin-dependent type 2 (IDDM2). IDDM2 is a multifactorial disorder of glucose homeostasis that is characterized by susceptibility to ketoacidosis in the absence of insulin therapy. Clinical fetaures are polydipsia, polyphagia and polyuria which result from hyperglycemia-induced osmotic diuresis and secondary thirst. These derangements result in long-term complications that affect the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and blood vessels.
Swiss-Prot Accession Number: P01308