Insulin decreases blood glucose concentration. It increases cell permeability to monosaccharides, amino acids, and fatty acids. It accelerates glycolysis, the pentose phosphate cycle, and glycogen synthesis in liver. Insulin is a heterodimer of a B chain and an A chain, linked by two disulfide bonds. Defects in INS are the cause of familial hyperproinsulinemia and are a cause of diabetes mellitus insulin-dependent type 2 (IDDM2). IDDM2 is a multifactorial disorder of glucose homeostasis that is characterized by susceptibility to ketoacidosis in the absence of insulin therapy. Clinical fetaures are polydipsia, polyphagia, and polyuria which result from hyperglycemia-induced osmotic diuresis and secondary thirst. These derangements result in long-term complications that affect the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and blood vessels.
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