Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 (PAI-1)

Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) is an inhibitor of tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA), a key enzyme in fibrinolysis and is synthesized by endothelial cells, platelets, and hepatocytes. Three forms of PAI-1 have been identified. The first form is the active form, while the other two forms are inactive and latent. The main function of PAI-1 in hemostasis is to inhibit t-PA. As PAI-1 levels increase, active levels of t-PA decrease, causing impaired fibrinolytic function. Elevated levels of PAI-1 have been observed in deep vein thrombosis and myocardial infarction as well as in normal pregnancy and sepsis.

Swiss-Prot Accession Number: P05121


Publications
Effects of canagliflozin versus glimepiride on adipokines and in inflammatory biomarkers in type 2 diabetes (2018) Garvey WT, Van Gaal L, Leiter LA, Vijapurkar U, List J, Cuddihy R, Ren J, Davies M Metabolism Clinical and Experimenta
Dendritic cell immunotherapy followed by cART interruption during HIV-1 infection induces plasma protein markers of cellular immunity and neutrophil recruitment (2018) van den Ham HJ, Cooper J, Tomasik J, Bahn S, Aerts J, Oseterhaus A, Gruters R, Andeweg A PLoS One
Carbon nanotube and nanofiber exposure and sputum and blood biomarkers of early effect among U.S. workers (2018) Beard JD, Erdely A, Dahm MM, de Perio MA, Birch ME, Evans DE, Fernback JE, Eye T, Kodali V, Mercer RR, Bertke SJ, Schubauer-Berigan MK Environmental Internation 116 (2018)
Networks of blood proteins in the neuroimmunology of schizophrenia (2018) Jeffries CD, Perkins DO, Fournier M, Do KQ, Cuenod M, Khadimallah I, Domenici E, Addington J, Bearden CE, Cadenhead KS, Cannon TD, Cornblatt BA, Mathalon DH, McGlashan TH, Seidman LJ, Tsuang M, Walker EF, Woods SW Transl Psychiatry
Proteomic biomarkers of cognitive impairment in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (2018) Lal C, Hardiman G, Kumbhare S, Strange C Sleep and Breathing
Associations of 26 Circulating Inflammatory and Renal Biomarkers with Near-Infrared Spectroscopy and Long-term Cardiovascular Outcome in Patients Undergoing Coronary Angiography (ATHEROREMO-NIRS Substudy) (2018) Anroedh SS, Akkerhuis KM, Oemrawsingh RM, Garcia-Garcia HM, Brankovic M, Regar E, van Geuns RJ, Serruys PW, Daemen J, Van Mieghem NM, Boersma E, Kardys I Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Pegbelfermin (BMS-986036), PEGlyated FGF21, in Patients with Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes: Results from a Randominzed Phase 2 Study (2018) Charles ED, Neuschwander-Tetri BA, Pablo Frias J, Kundu S, Luo Y, Tirucherai GS, Christrian R Obesity (Silver Spring)
Serum Apolipoprotein E and Other Inflammatory Markers Can Identify Non-Responding Patients to a Dendritic Cell Vaccine (2018) Leeman H, Kaminska E, Green D, Bodman-Smith M, Gravett A, Bodman-Smith K, Copier J, Coulton G, Fusi A, Dalgleish AG Translational Oncology
Relation of antioxidant capacity of diet and markers of oxidative status with C-reactive protein and adipocytokines: a prospective study. (2017) Stringa N, Brahimaj A, Zaciragic A, Dehghan A, Ikram MA, Hofman A, Muka T, Kiefte-de Jong JC, Franco OH Metab.
Effects of Acute Endurance Exercise on Plasma Protein Profiles of Endurance-Trained and Untrained Individuals over Time (2016) Schild M, Eichner G, Beiter T, Zuegel M, Niess AM, Steinacker JM, Mooren FC Mediators of Inflammation
Sjögren’s Syndrome Patients with Ectopic Germinal Centers Present with a Distinct Salivary Proteome (2016) Delaleu N, Mydel P, Brun JG, Jonsson MV, Alimonti A, Jonsson R Rheumatology
Variation in Serum Biomarkers with Sex and Female Hormonal Status: Implications for Clinical Tests (2016) Ramsey JM, Cooper JD, Penninx BWJH, Bahn S Scientific Reports
Blood-based immune-endocrine biomarkers of treatment response in depression (2016) Chan MK, Cooper JD, Bot M, Birkenhanger TK, Bergink V, Drexhage HA, Steiner J, Rothermundt M, Penninx BWJH, Bahn S Journal of Psychiatric Research
Shared Immune and Repair Markers During Experimental Toxoplasma Chronic Brain Infection and Schizophrenia (2015) Tomasik J, Schultz TL, Kluge W, Yolken RH, Bahn S, Carruthers VB Schizophr Bull
The application of multiple reaction monitoring and multi-analyte profiling to HDL proteins (2014) Yassine HN, Jackson AM, Borges CR, Billheimer D, Koh H, Smith D, Reaven P, Lau SS, Borchers CH Lipids Health Dis. 2014 Jan 8;13(1):8
Circulating acute phase proteins in relation to extent and composition of coronary atherosclerosis and cardiovascular outcome: results from the ATHEROREMO-IVUS study (2014) Battes LC, Akkerhuis KM, Cheng JM, Garcia-Garcia HM, Oemrawsingh RM, de Boer SPM, Reger E, van Geuns R-J, Serruys PW, Boersma E, Kardys I International Journal of Cardiology
Sweet Bing Cherries Lower Circulating Concentrations of Markers for Chronic Inflammatory Diseases in Healthy Humans (2013) Kelley DS, Adkins Y, Reddy A, Woodhouse LR, Mackey BE, Erickson KL J Nutr. 2013 Jan 23. [Epub ahead of print]
Effects of cerebrospinal fluid proteins on brain atrophy rates in cognitively healthy older adults (2013) Mattsson N, Insel P, Nosheny R, Trojanowski JQ, Shaw LM, Jack Jr. CR, Tosun D, Weiner M, Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative Neurobiology of Aging, Available online 1 October 2013
Allogeneic mesenchymal stem cell infusion for the stabilization of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (2013) Belingheri M, Lazzari L, Parazzi V, Groppali E, Biagi E, Gaipa G, Giordano R, Rastaldi MP, Croci D, Biondi A, Rebulla P, Edefonti A, Ghio L Biologicals. 2013 Oct 14. pii: S1045-1056(13)00111-5. doi: 10.1016/j.biologicals.2013.09.004
Identification of a molecular profile associated with immune status in first onset schizophrenia patients (2013) Herberth M, Rahmoune H, Schwarz E, Koethe D, Harris LW, Kranaster L, Witt SH, Spain M, Barnes A, Schmolz M, Leweke MF, Guest PC, Bahn S Clin Schizophr Relat Psychoses
Blood profiling of proteins and steroids during weight maintenance with manipulation of dietary protein level and glycaemic index (2012) Wang P, Holst C, Astrup A, Bouwman FG, van Otterdijk S, Wodzig WK, Andersen MR, van Baak MA, Rasmussen LG, Martinez JA, Jebb SA, Pfeiffer AF, Kafatos A, Handjieva-Darlenska T, Hlavaty P, Saris WH, Mariman EC Br J Nutr. 2012 Jan;107(1):106-19
Screening for New Biomarkers for Subcortical Vascular Dementia and Alzheimer’s Disease (2011) Öhrfelt A, Andreasson U, Simon A, Zetterberg H, Edman A, Potter W, Holder D, Devanarayan V, Seeburger J, Smith AD, Blennow K, Wallin A Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord Extra 1: 31–42.
Multiplexed Immunoassay Panel Identifies Novel CSF Biomarkers for Alzheimer's Disease Diagnosis and Prognosis (2011) Craig-Schapiro R, Kuhn M, Xiong C, Pickering EH, Liu J, Misko TP, Perrin RJ, Bales KR, Soares H, Fagan AM, Holtzman DM PLoS One. 2011 Apr 19;6(4):e18850
Association of serum markers with improvement in clinical response measures after treatment with golimumab in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis despite receiving methotrexate: results from the GO-FORWARD study (2010) Visvanathan S, Rahman MU, Keystone E, Genovese M, Klareskog L, Hsia E, Mack M, Buchanan J, Elashoff M, Wagner C Arthritis Res Ther. 12:R211
Human cytokine response to Texas crotaline envenomation before and after antivenom administration. (2010) Crocker P, Zad O, Milling T, Maxson T, King B, Whorton E Am J Emerg Med. 28: 871-9.
Identification of targeted analyte clusters for studies of schizophrenia. (2010) Cheng TM, Lu YE, Guest PC, Rahmoune H, Harris LW, Wang L, Ma D, Stelzhammer V, Umrania Y, Wayland MT, Lió P, Bahn S Mol Cell Proteomics 9: 510-522.
Plasma Protein Profiling Reveals Protein Clusters Related to BMI and Insulin Levels in Middle-Aged Overweight Subjects (2010) van Dijk SJ, Feskens EJM, Heidema AG, Bos MB, van de Rest O, Geleijnse JM, de Groot LCPGM, Muller M, Afman LA PLoS ONE 12: e14422.
Plasma biomarkers in carbon monoxide poisoning. (2010) Thom SR, Bhopale VM, Milovanova TM, Hardy KR, Logue CJ, Lambert DS, Troxel AB, Ballard K, Eisinger D Clin Toxicol (Phila) 48: 47-56.
The multiplex bead array approach to identifying serum biomarkers associated with breast cancer (2009) Kim BK, Lee JW, Park PJ, Shin YS, Lee WY, Lee KA, Ye S, Hyun H, Kang KN, Yeo D, Kim Y, Ohn SY, Noh DY, Kim CW Breast Cancer Res. 11: R22.
Biomarker analysis by fluorokine multianalyte profiling distinguishes patients requiring intervention from patients with long-term quiescent coronary artery disease: a potential approach to identify atherosclerotic disease progression. (2008) Gurbel PA, Kreutz RP, Bliden KP, DiChiara J, Tantry US Am Heart J 155: 56-61.
The metabolic state of diabetic monkeys is regulated by fibroblast growth factor-21. (2007) Kharitonenkov A, Wroblewski VJ, Koester A, Chen YF, Clutinger CK, Tigno XT, Hansen BC, Shanafelt AB, Etgen GJ Endocrinology 148: 774-81.
Effects of the incubation in vitro with sorbents on serum proteomic pattern and cytokine concentration in cancer patients during chemotherapy--preliminary results. (2006) Piccolomini F, LouWratten M, Sereni L, Balestreri E, Donadio E, Felicioli A, Felicioli R, Donadio C Biomed Pharmacother 60: 463-467.