Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (NGAL)

Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (NGAL), also known as Lipocalin-2, forms a disulfide bond-linked heterodimer with MMP-9. It mediates an innate immune response to bacterial infection by sequestrating iron. Lipocalins interact with many different molecules such as cell surface receptors and proteases, and play a role in a variety of processes such as cancer and allergy. Iron-trafficking protein involved in multiple processes such as apoptosis, innate immunity, and renal development. Involved in apoptosis due to interleukin-3 (IL-3) deprivation: iron-loaded form increases intracellular iron concentration without promoting apoptosis, while iron-free form decreases intracellular iron levels, inducing expression of the proapoptotic protein BCL2L11/BIM, resulting in apoptosis. Involved in innate immunity, possibly by sequestrating iron, leading to limit bacterial growth. NGAL levels rise in urine and blood within 2 hours of renal insult making NGAL a biomarker for acute renal injury.

Swiss-Prot Accession Number: P80188


Publications
Biomarkers of diabetic kidney disease (2018) Colhoun HM, Marcovecchio ML Diabetologia
Embelin and its derivatives unravel the signaling, proin?ammatoryand antiatherogenic properties of GPR84 receptor (2018) Gaidarov I, Anthony T, Gatlin J, Chen X, Mills D, Solomon M, Han S, Semple G, Unett DJ Pharmacological Research
Dendritic cell immunotherapy followed by cART interruption during HIV-1 infection induces plasma protein markers of cellular immunity and neutrophil recruitment (2018) van den Ham HJ, Cooper J, Tomasik J, Bahn S, Aerts J, Oseterhaus A, Gruters R, Andeweg A PLoS One
Pharmacokinetics of Telavancin at Fixed Doses in Normal-Body-Weight and Obese (Classes I, II and III) Adult Subjexts (2018) Bunnell KL, Pai MP, Sikka M, Bleasdale S, Wenzler E, Danziger LH, Rodvold KA Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Associations of 26 Circulating Inflammatory and Renal Biomarkers with Near-Infrared Spectroscopy and Long-term Cardiovascular Outcome in Patients Undergoing Coronary Angiography (ATHEROREMO-NIRS Substudy) (2018) Anroedh SS, Akkerhuis KM, Oemrawsingh RM, Garcia-Garcia HM, Brankovic M, Regar E, van Geuns RJ, Serruys PW, Daemen J, Van Mieghem NM, Boersma E, Kardys I Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Perspectives on using a multiplex human kidney safety biomarker panel to detect cisplatin-induced tubular toxicity in male and female Cynomolgus monkeys. (2017) Chen Y, Dale Thurman J, Kinter LB, Bialecki R, Eric McDuffie J Toxicol Appl Pharmacol.
Assessment of Urine Proteomics in Type 1 Primary Hyperoxaluria*American Journal of Nephrology (2016) Brooks ER, Hoppe B, Milliner DS, Salido E, Rim J, Krevitt LM, Olson JB, Price HE, Vural G, Langman CB American Journal of Nephrology
Sjögren’s Syndrome Patients with Ectopic Germinal Centers Present with a Distinct Salivary Proteome (2016) Delaleu N, Mydel P, Brun JG, Jonsson MV, Alimonti A, Jonsson R Rheumatology
Variation in Serum Biomarkers with Sex and Female Hormonal Status: Implications for Clinical Tests (2016) Ramsey JM, Cooper JD, Penninx BWJH, Bahn S Scientific Reports
Plasma cystatin C and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin in relation to coronary atherosclerosis on intravascular ultrasound and cardiovascular outcome: Impact of kidney function (ATHEROREMO-IVUS study). (2016) Brankovic M, Akkerhuis KM, Buljubasic N, Cheng JM, Oemrawsingh RM, Garcia-Garcia HM, Regar E, Serruys PW, van Geuns RJ, Boersma E, Kardys I. Atherosclerosis
Characterization of Renal Biomarkers for Use in Clinical Trials: Effect of Preanalytical Processing and Qualification Using Samples from Subjects with Diabetes (2015) Brott DA, Furlong ST, Adler SH, Hainer JW, Arani RB, Pinches M, Rossing P, Chaturvedi N Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Comparison of Plasma and Urine Biomarker Performance in Acute Kidney Injury (2015) Schley G, Köberle C, Manuilova E, Rutz S, Forster C, Weyand M, Formentini I, Kientsch-Engel R, Eckardt K-U, Willam C PLoS ONE
Plasma protein biomarkers enhance the clinical prediction of kidney injury recovery in patients undergoing liver transplantation. (2014) Levitsky J, Baker TB, Jie C, Ahya S, Levin M, Friedewald J, Al-Saden P, Salomon DR, Abecassis MM. Hepatology 2014 Jul 31. doi: 10.1002/hep.27346. [Epub ahead of print]
Deferasirox effect on renal haemodynamic parameters in patients with transfusion-dependent ß thalassaemia. (2014) Piga A, Fracchia S, Lai ME, Cappellini MD, Hirschberg R, Habr D, Wegener A, Bouillaud E, Forni GL. Br J Haematol. 2014 Nov 17. doi: 10.1111/bjh.13217. [Epub ahead of print]
Identification of blood-based molecular signatures for prediction of response and relapse in schizophrenia patients (2012) Schwarz E, Guest PC, Steiner J, Bogerts B, Bahn S Translational Psychiatry (2012) 2, e82
Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (NGAL) and Kidney Injury Molecule 1 (KIM-1) as Predictors of Incident CKD Stage 3: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study (2012) Bhavsar NA, Köttgen A, Coresh J, Astor BC Am J Kidney Dis. 2012 Apr 27. [Epub ahead of print]
Systemic Biomarkers of Neutrophilic Inflammation, Tissue Injury and Repair in COPD Patients with Differing Levels of Disease Severity (2012) Cockayne DA, Cheng DT, Waschki B, Sridhar S, Ravindran P, Hilton H, Kourteva G, Bitter H, Pillai SG, Visvanathan S, Müller KC, Holz O, Magnussen H, Watz H, Fine JS PLoS One. 2012;7(6):e38629