Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9)

Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), also known as 92 kd type IV collagenase or Gelatinase B, is a zinc-dependent endopeptidase, synthesized and secreted in monomeric form as a zymogen. The structure is similar to MMP-2, another member of matrixmetalloproteinase family. Its primary function is degradation of proteins in the extracellular matrix, digesting decorin, elastin, fibrillin, laminin, gelatin (denatured collagen), and types IV, V, XI and XVI collagen. MMP-9 also activates growth factors like proTGFb and proTNFa. Physiologically, MMP-9 in coordination with other MMPs, plays a role in normal tissue remodeling events such as neurite growth, embryonic development, angiogenesis, ovulation, mammary gland involution and wound healing. MMP-9, with other MMPs, is also involved in osteoblastic bone formation and/or inhibits osteoclastic bone resorption. Elevated expression of MMP-9, along with MMP-2, is usually seen in invasive and highly tumorigenic cancers such as colorectal tumors, gastric carcinoma, pancreatic carcinoma, breast cancer, oral cancer, melanoma, malignant gliomas, chondrosarcoma, gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma. Levels are also increased in malignant astrocytomas, carcinomatous meningitis, and brain metastases.

Swiss-Prot Accession Number: P14780


Publications
Von Willebrand factor and ADAMTS13 activity in relation to risk of dementia: a population-based study (2018) Wolters F, Boender J, de Vries P, Sonneveld M, Koudstaal P, de Maat M, Franco O, Ikram M, Leebeek F, Ikram MA Scientific Reports 2018 Apr
Phase Ib Study of Glasdegib, A Hedgehog Pathway Inhibitor, in (2018) Savona M, Pollyea D, Stock W, Oehler V, Schroeder MA, Lancet J, McCloskey J, Kantarigian H, Ma WW, Shaik MN, Laird AD, Zeremski M, O'Connell A, Chan G, Cortes JE Clinical Cancer Research
Dendritic cell immunotherapy followed by cART interruption during HIV-1 infection induces plasma protein markers of cellular immunity and neutrophil recruitment (2018) van den Ham HJ, Cooper J, Tomasik J, Bahn S, Aerts J, Oseterhaus A, Gruters R, Andeweg A PLoS One
IL-17 blockade with secukinumab in peripheral spondyloarthritis impacts synovial immunopathology without compromising systemic immune responses (2018) van Mens LJJ, van de Sande MGH, Menegatti S, Chen S, Blijdorp ICP, de Jong HM, Fluri IA, Latuhihin TE, van Kuijk AWR, Rogge L, Yeremenko NG, Baeten DLP Arthritis Rheumatol
Networks of blood proteins in the neuroimmunology of schizophrenia (2018) Jeffries CD, Perkins DO, Fournier M, Do KQ, Cuenod M, Khadimallah I, Domenici E, Addington J, Bearden CE, Cadenhead KS, Cannon TD, Cornblatt BA, Mathalon DH, McGlashan TH, Seidman LJ, Tsuang M, Walker EF, Woods SW Transl Psychiatry
Synergistic Cytokine Effects as Apremilast Response Predictors in Patients With Psoriasis (2018) Garcet S, Nograles K, Correa da Rosa J, Schafer PH, Krueger JG Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Phase 2 Trial of BMS-986020, a Lysophosphatidic Acid Receptor Antagonist for the Treatment of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (2018) Palmer SM, Snyder L, Todd JL, Soule B, Christian R, Anstrom K, Luo Y, Gagnon R, Rosen G Chest Journal
Elevated circulating MMP-9 is linked to increased COPD exacerbation in SPIROMICS and COPDGene (2018) Wells JM, Parker MM, Oster RA, Bowler RP, Dransfield MT, Bhatt SP, Cho MH, Kim V, Curtis JL, Martinez FJ, Paine R 3rd, O'Neal W, Labaki WW, Kaner RJ, Barjaktarevic I, Han MK, Silverman EK, Crapo JD, Barr RG, Woodruff P, Castaldi PJ, Gaggar A JCI Insight
Serum Apolipoprotein E and Other Inflammatory Markers Can Identify Non-Responding Patients to a Dendritic Cell Vaccine (2018) Leeman H, Kaminska E, Green D, Bodman-Smith M, Gravett A, Bodman-Smith K, Copier J, Coulton G, Fusi A, Dalgleish AG Translational Oncology
Inflammatory profile analysis reveals differences in cytokine expression between smokers, moist snuff users, and dual users compared to non-tobacco consumers. (2017) Sgambato JA, Jones BA, Caraway JW, Prasad GL Cytokine
Apolipoprotein a-I and Paraoxonase-1 Are Potential Blood Biomarkers for Ischemic Stroke Diagnosis (2016) Walsh KB, Hart K, Roll S, Sperling M, Unruh D, Davidson WS, Lindsell CJ, Adeoye O Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases
Effects of Acute Endurance Exercise on Plasma Protein Profiles of Endurance-Trained and Untrained Individuals over Time (2016) Schild M, Eichner G, Beiter T, Zuegel M, Niess AM, Steinacker JM, Mooren FC Mediators of Inflammation
Assessment of Urine Proteomics in Type 1 Primary Hyperoxaluria*American Journal of Nephrology (2016) Brooks ER, Hoppe B, Milliner DS, Salido E, Rim J, Krevitt LM, Olson JB, Price HE, Vural G, Langman CB American Journal of Nephrology
Inflammatory Profile in Lrrk2-Associated Prodromal and Clinical Pd (2016) Brockmann K, Apel A, Schulte C, Schneiderhan-Marra N, Pont-Sunyer C, Vilas D, Ruiz-Martinez J, Langkamp M, Corvol J-C, Cormier F, Knorpp T, Joos TO, Gasser T, Schüle B, Aasly JO, Foroud T, Marti-Masso JF, Brice A, Tolosa E, Marras C, Berg D, Maetzler W Journal of Neuroinflammation
Oxidative stress in drug-naïve first episode patients with schizophrenia and major depression: effects of disease acuity and potential confounders (2016) Jordan W, Dobrowolny H, Bahn S, Bernstein HG, Brigadski T Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci
Study of cardiovascular disease biomarkers among tobacco consumers, part 2: biomarkers of biological effect. (2015) Nordskog BK, Brown BG, Marano KM, Campell LR, Jones BA, Borgerding MF. Inhal Toxicol. 2015 Mar 19:1-10. [Epub ahead of print]
Angiogenesis Dysregulation in Term Asphyxiated Newborns Treated with Hypothermia (2015) Shaikh H, Boudes E, Khoja Z, Shevell M, Wintermark P PLOS One
Identification of plasma biomarker concentration changes resulting from the administration of the Vascular Disrupting Agent BNC105 across 3 clinical trials in mesothelioma, ovarian and renal cancer (2015) Kremmidiotis G, Leske A, Simpson J, Doolin E, Iglesias J AACR 2015
A Phase I/Ii Trial of Bnc105p with Everolimus in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma (2015) Pal S, Azad A, Bhatia S, Drabkin H, Costello B, Sarantopoulos J, Kanesvaran R, Lauer R, Starodub A, Hauke R, Sweeney CJ, Hahn NM, Sonpavde G, Richey S, Breen T, Kremmidiotis G, Leske A, Doolin E, Bibby DC, Simpson J, Iglesias J, Hutson T Clinical Cancer Research
Implementing lessons learned from previous bronchial biopsy trials in a new randomized controlled COPD biopsy trial with roflumilast (2014) Barnes NC, Saetta M, Rabe KF BMC Pulm Med. 2014 Jan 31;14(1):9
Discovery of Emphysema Relevant Molecular Networks from an A/J Mouse Inhalation Study Using Reverse Engineering and Forward Simulation (REFSâ„¢) (2014) Xiang Y, Kogel U, Gebel S, Peck MJ, Peitsch MC, Akmaev VR, Hoeng J Gene Regul Syst Bio. 2014 Feb 19;8:45-61
A Canonical Transforming Growth Factor Beta-Dependent Signaling Pathway is Present in Peripheral Blood Cells of Cancer Patients with Skeletal Metastasis (2013) Kadam S, Cleverly AL, Farmen M, Grondin J, Cox YI, Lahn M J Mol Biomark Diagn 2013, 4:3
Plasma metabolomics and proteomics profiling after a postprandial challenge reveal subtle diet effects on human metabolic status (2012) Pellis L, van Erk MJ, van Ommen B, Bakker GCM, Hendriks HFJ, Cnubben NHP, Kleemann R, van Someren EP, Bobeldijk I, Rubingh CM, Wopereis S Metabolomics
Identification of blood-based molecular signatures for prediction of response and relapse in schizophrenia patients (2012) Schwarz E, Guest PC, Steiner J, Bogerts B, Bahn S Translational Psychiatry (2012) 2, e82
Multivariate Protein Signatures of Pre-Clinical Alzheimer's Disease in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) Plasma Proteome Dataset (2012) Johnstone D, Milward EA, Berretta R, Moscato P PLoS One. 2012;7(4):e34341
Blood-Based Protein Biomarkers for Diagnosis of Alzheimer Disease (2012) Doecke JD, Laws SM, Faux NG, Wilson W, Burnham SC, Lam CP, Mondal A, Bedo J, Bush AI, Brown B, De Ruyck K, Ellis KA, Fowler C, Gupta VB, Head R, Macaulay SL, Pertile K, Rowe CC, Rembach A, Rodrigues M, Rumble R, Szoeke C, Taddei K, Taddei T, Trounson B, Ames D, Masters CL, Martins RN; for the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative and Australian Imaging Biomarker and Lifestyle Research Group Arch Neurol. 2012 Jul 16:1-8
Immunomodulatory Effect of the Topical Ophthalmic Janus Kinase Inhibitor Tofacitinib (CP-690,550) in Patients with Dry Eye Disease (2012) Huang JF, Yafawi R, Zhang M, McDowell M, Rittenhouse KD, Sace F, Liew SH, Cooper SR, Pickering EH Ophthalmology. 2012 Jul;119(7):e43-50
Single-agent lenalidomide in relapsed/refractory mantle cell lymphoma: results from a UK phase II study suggest activity and possible gender differences (2012) Eve HE, Carey S, Richardson SJ, Heise CC, Mamidipudi V, Shi T, Radford JA, Auer RL, Bullard SH, Rule SA Br J Haematol. 2012 Aug 9.
Blood profiling of proteins and steroids during weight maintenance with manipulation of dietary protein level and glycaemic index (2012) Wang P, Holst C, Astrup A, Bouwman FG, van Otterdijk S, Wodzig WK, Andersen MR, van Baak MA, Rasmussen LG, Martinez JA, Jebb SA, Pfeiffer AF, Kafatos A, Handjieva-Darlenska T, Hlavaty P, Saris WH, Mariman EC Br J Nutr. 2012 Jan;107(1):106-19
Blood Profile of Proteins and Steroid Hormones Predicts Weight Change after Weight Loss with Interactions of Dietary Protein Level and Glycemic Index (2011) Wang P, Holst C, Andersen MR, Astrup A, Bouwman FG, van Otterdijk S, Wodzig WKWH, van Baak MA, Larsen TM, Jebb SA, Kafatos A, Pfeiffer AFH, Martinez JA, Handjieva-Darlenska T, Kunesova M, Saris WHM, Mariman ECM PLoS ONE 6: e16773.
Safety and efficacy of everolimus, a mTOR inhibitor, as single agent in a phase 1/2 study in patients with myelofibrosis (2011) Guglielmelli P, Barosi G, Rambaldi A, Marchioli R, Masciulli A, Tozzi L, Biamonte F, Bartalucci N, Gattoni E, Lupo ML, Finazzi G, Pancrazzi A, Antonioli E, Susini MC, Pieri L, Malevolti E, Usala E, Occhini U, Grossi A, Caglio S, Paratore S, Bosi A, Barbui T, Vannucchi AM Blood. 2011 Jul 1. [Epub ahead of print]
Plasma protein biomarkers for depression and schizophrenia by multi analyte profiling of case-control collections. (2010) Domenici E, Willé DR, Tozzi F, Prokopenko I, Miller S, McKeown A, Brittain C, Rujescu D, Giegling I, Turck CW, Holsboer F, Bullmore ET, Middleton L, Merlo-Pich E, Alexander RC, Muglia P PLoS ONE 5: e9166.
Dysregulated macrophage-inflammatory protein-2 expression drives illness in bacterial superinfection of influenza. (2010) Zavitz CC, Bauer CM, Gaschler GJ, Fraser KM, Strieter RM, Hogaboam CM, Stampfli MR J Immunol 184: 2001-2013.
Matrix metalloproteinases during and outside of migraine attacks without aura. (2009) Ashina M, Tvedskov JF, Lipka K, Bilello J, Penkowa M, Olesen J Cephalalgia 30: 303-310.
Biomarker analysis by fluorokine multianalyte profiling distinguishes patients requiring intervention from patients with long-term quiescent coronary artery disease: a potential approach to identify atherosclerotic disease progression. (2008) Gurbel PA, Kreutz RP, Bliden KP, DiChiara J, Tantry US Am Heart J 155: 56-61.
Phase I study of eptifibatide in patients with sickle cell anaemia. (2007) Lee SP, Ataga KI, Zayed M, Manganello JM, Orringer EP, Phillips DR, Parise LV Br J Haematol 139: 612-620.
Multi-Analyte Profiling of Post-Myocardial Infarction Plasma Samples. (2007) Escobar GP and Lindsey ML FASEB J. 21: 746.11.