Malondialdehyde-Modified Low-Density Lipoprotein (MDA-LDL)
Malondialdehyde-oxidixed LDL (MDA-LDL) has been isolated from atherosclerotic plaques. Oxidation affects both the lipid and protein components of LDL. Reactive aldehyde products formed during the oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as malondialdehyde (MDA) are capable of attaching covalently to the amino groups of lysine residues of apolipoproteins. Circulating MDA-LDL is a useful marker for the identification of patients with coronary artery disease. High concentrations of circulating MDA-LDL impair endothelial function and may play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Each native LDL particle contains a single apolipoprotein B-100 molecule, which circulates the fatty acids, keeping them soluble in the aqueous environment. In addition, LDL has a highly hydrophobic core consisting of polyunsaturated fatty acid known as linoleate and about 1500 esterified cholesterol molecules. This core is surrounded by a shell of phospholipids and unesterified cholesterol, as well as the single copy of Apo B-100. LDL particles are approximately 22 nm in diameter and have a mass of about 3 million daltons, but since LDL particles contain a changing number of fatty acids, they actually have a distribution of mass and size. Determining the structure of LDL has been a difficult task because of its heterogeneous structure.