Monocyte Chemotactic Protein 4 (MCP-4; CCL13) is a chemotactic factor that attracts monocytes, lymphocytes, basophils and eosinophils, but not neutrophils. Signals through CCR2B and CCR3 receptors. Plays a role in the accumulation of leukocytes at both sides of allergic and non-allergic inflammation. May be involved in the recruitment of monocytes into the arterial wall during the disease process of atherosclerosis. May play a role in the monocyte attraction in tissues chronically exposed to exogenous pathogens. MCP-4 is widely expressed, found in small intestine, thymus, colon, lung, trachea, stomach, and lymph node. Low levels are seen in the pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. MCP-4 is induced by IL-1 and TNF alpha.
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