Insulin

Insulin is a hormone, produced by pancreatic beta cells, that serves to increase glucose uptake from the blood. It has effects on the liver, skeletal muscles, and fat. Insulin circulates in high levels in patients with insulin-secreting pancreatic tumors (insulinomas) resulting in hypoglycemia. Accordingly, insulin immunoassays used in connection with a provocative dose of tolbutamide or calcium, play an essential role in the identification (and localization) of insulinomas. Conditions such as diabetes, obesity, high carbohydrate diet, and inactivity tend to increase the normal value. Elevated levels are also found after food intake, in acromegaly, in Cushing's syndrome, and in thyrotoxicosis.

Swiss-Prot Accession Number: P01308


Publications
Metabolomic analyses reveal lipid abnormalities and hepatic dysfunction in non-human primate model for Yersinia pestis (2019) Gautam A, Muhie S, Cakraborty N, Hoke A, Donohue D, Miller SA, Hammamieh R, Jett M Metabolomics
Dendritic cell immunotherapy followed by cART interruption during HIV-1 infection induces plasma protein markers of cellular immunity and neutrophil recruitment (2018) van den Ham HJ, Cooper J, Tomasik J, Bahn S, Aerts J, Oseterhaus A, Gruters R, Andeweg A PLoS One
Allostatic load is associated with psychotic symptoms and decreases withantipsychotic treatment in patients with schizophrenia and ?rst-episodepsychosis (2018) Berger M, Juster RP, Westphal S, Amminger P, Bogerts B, Schiltz K, Bahn S, Steiner J, Sarnyai Z Psychoneuroendocrinology
Proteomic biomarkers of cognitive impairment in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (2018) Lal C, Hardiman G, Kumbhare S, Strange C Sleep and Breathing
Serum Apolipoprotein E and Other Inflammatory Markers Can Identify Non-Responding Patients to a Dendritic Cell Vaccine (2018) Leeman H, Kaminska E, Green D, Bodman-Smith M, Gravett A, Bodman-Smith K, Copier J, Coulton G, Fusi A, Dalgleish AG Translational Oncology
Effects of Acute Endurance Exercise on Plasma Protein Profiles of Endurance-Trained and Untrained Individuals over Time (2016) Schild M, Eichner G, Beiter T, Zuegel M, Niess AM, Steinacker JM, Mooren FC Mediators of Inflammation
Sjögren’s Syndrome Patients with Ectopic Germinal Centers Present with a Distinct Salivary Proteome (2016) Delaleu N, Mydel P, Brun JG, Jonsson MV, Alimonti A, Jonsson R Rheumatology
Variation in Serum Biomarkers with Sex and Female Hormonal Status: Implications for Clinical Tests (2016) Ramsey JM, Cooper JD, Penninx BWJH, Bahn S Scientific Reports
A Semi-Mechanism Approach Based on Mri and Proteomics for Prediction of Conversion from Mild Cognitive Impairment to Alzheimer’s Disease (2016) Liu H, Zhou X, Jiang H, He H, Liu X Scientific Reports
Evidence for disturbed insulin and growth hormone signaling as potential risk factors in the development of schizophrenia. (2014) van Beveren NJ, Schwarz E, Noll R, Guest PC, Meijer C, de Haan L, Bahn S. Translational Psychiatry 2014 Aug 26;4:e430. doi: 10.1038/tp.2014.52.
Significance of Plasma Adiponectin for Diagnosis, Neurological Severity and Functional Outcome in Ischemic Stroke — Research for Biomarkers in Ischemic Stroke (Rebios) (2014) Kuwashiro T, Ago T, Kamouchi M, Matsuo R, Hata J, Kuroda J, Fukuda K, Sugimori H, Fukuhara M, Awano H, Isomura T, Suzuki K, Yasaka M, Okada Y, Kiyohara Y, Kitazono T Metabolism
The effects of stress on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function in subjects with schizophrenia (2013) Guest FL, Martins-de-Souza D, Rahmoune H, Bahn S, Guest PC Rev Psiq Clín. 2013;40(1):20-7
Multiplex immunoassay analysis of plasma shows prominent upregulation of growth factor activity pathways linked to GSK3ß signaling in bipolar patients (2013) Haenisch F, Alsaif M, Guest PC, Rahmoune H, Dickerson F, Yolken R, Bahn S Journal of Affective Disorders
Identification of Subgroups of Schizophrenia Patients with Changes in Either Immune or Growth Factor and Hormonal Pathways (2013) Schwarz E, Van Beveren NJM, Ramsey J, Leweke FM, Rothermundt M, Bogerts B, Steiner J, Guest PC, Bahn S Schizophrenia Bulletin
Distinct Molecular Phenotypes in Male and Female Schizophrenia Patients (2013) Ramsey JM, Schwarz E, Guest PC, Van Beveren NJM, Leweke FM, Rothermundt M, Bogerts B, Steiner J, Bahn S PLoS ONE
Plasma biomarkers of depressive symptoms in older adults (2012) Arnold SE, Xie SX, Leung YY, Wang LS, Kling MA, Han X, Kim EJ, Wolk DA, Bennett DA, Chen-Plotkin A, Grossman M, Hu W, Lee VMY, Mackin RS, Trojanowski JQ, Wilson RS, Shaw LM Translational Psychiatry (2012) 2, e65;
Identification of blood-based molecular signatures for prediction of response and relapse in schizophrenia patients (2012) Schwarz E, Guest PC, Steiner J, Bogerts B, Bahn S Translational Psychiatry (2012) 2, e82
Blood profiling of proteins and steroids during weight maintenance with manipulation of dietary protein level and glycaemic index (2012) Wang P, Holst C, Astrup A, Bouwman FG, van Otterdijk S, Wodzig WK, Andersen MR, van Baak MA, Rasmussen LG, Martinez JA, Jebb SA, Pfeiffer AF, Kafatos A, Handjieva-Darlenska T, Hlavaty P, Saris WH, Mariman EC Br J Nutr. 2012 Jan;107(1):106-19
Proteomic changes induced by anaesthesia and muscle relaxant treatment prior to electroconvulsive therapy (2011) Stelzhammer V, Rothermundt M, Guest PC, Michael N, Sondermann C, Kluge W, Martins-de-Souza D, Rahmoune H, Bahn S Proteomics Clin Appl. 2011 Oct 17.
Altered Levels of Circulating Insulin and Other Neuroendocrine Hormones Associated with the Onset of Schizophrenia (2011) Guest PC, Schwarz E, Krishnamurthy D, Harris LW, Leweke FM, Rothermundt M, Van Beveren N, Spain M, Barnes A, Steiner J, Rahmoune H, Bahn S Psychoneuroendocrinology
Association of serum markers with improvement in clinical response measures after treatment with golimumab in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis despite receiving methotrexate: results from the GO-FORWARD study (2010) Visvanathan S, Rahman MU, Keystone E, Genovese M, Klareskog L, Hsia E, Mack M, Buchanan J, Elashoff M, Wagner C Arthritis Res Ther. 12:R211
Identification of targeted analyte clusters for studies of schizophrenia. (2010) Cheng TM, Lu YE, Guest PC, Rahmoune H, Harris LW, Wang L, Ma D, Stelzhammer V, Umrania Y, Wayland MT, Lió P, Bahn S Mol Cell Proteomics 9: 510-522.
Plasma protein biomarkers for depression and schizophrenia by multi analyte profiling of case-control collections. (2010) Domenici E, Willé DR, Tozzi F, Prokopenko I, Miller S, McKeown A, Brittain C, Rujescu D, Giegling I, Turck CW, Holsboer F, Bullmore ET, Middleton L, Merlo-Pich E, Alexander RC, Muglia P PLoS ONE 5: e9166.
Plasma Protein Profiling Reveals Protein Clusters Related to BMI and Insulin Levels in Middle-Aged Overweight Subjects (2010) van Dijk SJ, Feskens EJM, Heidema AG, Bos MB, van de Rest O, Geleijnse JM, de Groot LCPGM, Muller M, Afman LA PLoS ONE 12: e14422.
Dysregulated macrophage-inflammatory protein-2 expression drives illness in bacterial superinfection of influenza. (2010) Zavitz CC, Bauer CM, Gaschler GJ, Fraser KM, Strieter RM, Hogaboam CM, Stampfli MR J Immunol 184: 2001-2013.
Bead-based Multiplexed Immunoassays to Identify New Biomarkers in Maternal Serum to Improve First Trimester Down Syndrome Screening. (2009) Koster MP, Pennings JL, Imholz S, Rodenburg W, Visser GH, de Vries A, Schielen PC Prenat Diagn 29: 857-862.