Apolipoprotein E (Apo E)

Apolipoprotein E (Apo E) mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles. It can serve as a ligand for the LDL (Apo B/E) receptor and for the specific Apo E receptor (chylomicron remnant) of hepatic tissues. Apo E occurs in all lipoprotein fractions in plasma. It constitutes 10-20% of very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) and 1-2% of high density lipoproteins (HDL). Apo E is produced in the liver, brain, spleen, lung, adrenal gland, ovary, kidney and muscle. It is glycated in plasma VLDL of normal subjects, and of hyperglycemic diabetic patients at a higher level (2-3 fold). Three major isoforms, E2, E3, and E4 exist. The most common isoform E3 is present in 40-90% of the population. Individuals carrying the common APOE*4 variant are at higher risk of cardiovascular disease. The APOE4 allele is genetically associated with the common late onset familial and sporadic forms of Alzheimer disease. Apo E belongs to the apolipoprotein A1/A4/E family.

Swiss-Prot Accession Number: P02649


 
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This analyte is not currently part of Myriad RBM's testing menu.

 
Myriad RBM Publications Publications
Metabolomic analyses reveal lipid abnormalities and hepatic dysfunction in non-human primate model for Yersinia pestis (2019) Gautam A, Muhie S, Cakraborty N, Hoke A, Donohue D, Miller SA, Hammamieh R, Jett M Metabolomics
Cortisol associated with hypometabolism across the Alzheimer's disease (2019) Wirth M, Huijbers W, Lange C bioRxiv
A blood-based signature of cerebrospinal fluid Aß1-42 status (2019) Goudey B, Fung BJ, Schieber C, Faux NG, Alzheimer's Disease Metabolomics Consortium, Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative Scientific Reports
Applying modern Omic technologies to the Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinoses. (2019) Kline RA, Wishart TM, Mills K, Heywood WE BBA - Molecular Basis of Disease
Increased serum levels of leptin and insulin in both schizophrenia and major depressive disorder: A cross-disorder proteomics analysis (2019) Cakici N, Bot M, Lamers F, Janssen T, van der Haan L, Bahn S, Penninx BWJH, van Beveren NJM European Neuropsychopharmacology
Dendritic cell immunotherapy followed by cART interruption during HIV-1 infection induces plasma protein markers of cellular immunity and neutrophil recruitment (2018) van den Ham HJ, Cooper J, Tomasik J, Bahn S, Aerts J, Oseterhaus A, Gruters R, Andeweg A PLoS One
Blood CSF1 and CXCL12 as Causal Mediators of Coronary Artery Disease (2018) Sjaarda J, Gerstein H, Chong M, Yusuf S, Meyre D, Anand SS, Hess S, Pare G Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone and interleukin-8 levels in boys with autism spectrum disorder (2017) Singh S, Yazdani U, Gadad B, Zaman S, Hynan LS, Roatch N, Schutte C, Marti CN, Hewitson L and German DC J. Neuroinflammation
A multivariate predictive modeling approach reveals a novel CSF peptide signature for both Alzheimer ’s Disease state classification and for predicting future disease progression (2017) Llano DA, Bundela S, Mudar RA, Devanarayan V Plos One
Genetic studies of plasma analytes identify novel potential biomarkers for several complex traits (2016) Deming Y, Xia J, Cai Y, Lord J, Del-Aguila JL, Fernandez MV, Carrell D, Black K, Budde J, Ma S, Saef B, Howells B, Bertelsen S, Bailey M, Ridge PG, Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI), Holtzman D, Morris JC, Bales K, Pickering EH, Lee J, Heitsch L, Kauwe J, Goate A, Piccio L, Cruchaga C Scientific Reports
Serum apolipoprotein E is associated with long-term risk of Alzheimer's disease: the Rotterdam Study (2016) Wolters FJ, Koudstaal PJ, Hofman A, Duijn CM, Ikram MA. Neurosci Lett
Variation in Serum Biomarkers with Sex and Female Hormonal Status: Implications for Clinical Tests (2016) Ramsey JM, Cooper JD, Penninx BWJH, Bahn S Scientific Reports
Serum protein mediators of dementia and aging proper (2016) Royall DR, Al-Rubaye S, Bishnoi R, Palmer RF Aging
A Potential Endophenotype for Alzheimer's Disease: Cerebrospinal Fluid Clusterin (2016) Deming Y, Xia J, Cai Y, Lord J, Holmans P, Bertelsen S, Holtzman D, Morris JC, Bales K, Pickering EH, Kauwe J, Goate A, Cruchaga C Neurobiology of Aging
Serum Levels of Apolipoproteins and Incident Type 2 Diabetes: A Prospective Cohort Study (2016) Brahimaj A, Ligthart S, Ikram MA, Hofman A, Franco OH, Sijbrands EJ, Kavousi M, Dehghan A Diabetes Care
Ferritin levels in the cerebrospinal fluid predict Alzheimer's disease outcomes and are regulated by APOE. (2015) Ayton S, Faux NG, Bush AI; Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. Nat Commun. 2015 May 19;6:6760. doi: 10.1038/ncomms7760.
Low Plasma Apoe Levels Are Associated with Smaller Hippocampal Size in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative Cohort (2015) Teng E, Chow N, Hwang KS, Thompson PM, Gylys KH, Cole GM, Jack Jr CR, Shaw LM, Trojanowski JQ, Soares HD, Weiner MW, Apostolova LG Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
Serum proteomic analysis identifies sex-specific differences in lipid metabolism and inflammation profiles in adults diagnosed with Asperger syndrome (2014) Steeb H, Ramsey JM, Guest PC, Stocki P, Cooper JD, Rahmoune H, Ingudomnukul E, Auyeung B, Ruta L, Baron-Cohen S, Bahn S Mol Autism. 2014 Jan 27;5(1):4
CSF Apo-E levels associate with cognitive decline and MRI changes (2014) Toledo JB, Da X, Weiner MW, Wolk DA, Xie SX, Arnold SE, Davatzikos C, Shaw LM, Trojanowski JQ; For the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative Acta Neuropathol. 2014 Jan 3. [Epub ahead of print]
Apolipoprotein H Expression Is Associated with Il28b Genotype and Viral Clearance in Hepatitis C Virus Infection (2014) Laird ME, Mohsen A, Duffy D, Mamdouh R, Lefouler L, Casrouge A, El-Daly M, Rafik M, Abdel-Hamid M, Soulier A, Pawlotsky J-M, Hézode C, Rosa I, Renard P, Mohamed MK, Bonnard P, Izopet J, Mallet V, Pol S, Albert ML, Fontanet A Journal of Hepatology
Relationship between Plasma Analytes and SPARE-AD Defined Brain Atrophy Patterns in ADNI (2013) Toledo JB, Da X, Bhatt P, Wolk DA, Arnold SE, Shaw LM, Trojanowski JQ, Davatzikos C PLoS One. 2013;8(2):e55531
Multivariate Protein Signatures of Pre-Clinical Alzheimer's Disease in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) Plasma Proteome Dataset (2012) Johnstone D, Milward EA, Berretta R, Moscato P PLoS One. 2012;7(4):e34341
Blood-Based Protein Biomarkers for Diagnosis of Alzheimer Disease (2012) Doecke JD, Laws SM, Faux NG, Wilson W, Burnham SC, Lam CP, Mondal A, Bedo J, Bush AI, Brown B, De Ruyck K, Ellis KA, Fowler C, Gupta VB, Head R, Macaulay SL, Pertile K, Rowe CC, Rembach A, Rodrigues M, Rumble R, Szoeke C, Taddei K, Taddei T, Trounson B, Ames D, Masters CL, Martins RN; for the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative and Australian Imaging Biomarker and Lifestyle Research Group Arch Neurol. 2012 Jul 16:1-8
Cerebrospinal fluid APOE levels, an endophenotype for genetic studies for Alzheimer's disease (2012) Cruchaga C, Kauwe JS, Nowotny P, Bales K, Pickering EH, Mayo K, Bertelsen S, Hinrichs A; the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, Fagan AM, Holtzman DM, Morris JC, Goate AM Hum Mol Genet. 2012 Jul 20. [Epub ahead of print]
Plasma Biomarkers Associated With the Apolipoprotein E Genotype and Alzheimer Disease (2012) Soares HD, Potter WZ, Pickering E, Kuhn M, Immermann FW, Shera DM, Ferm M, Dean RA, Simon AJ, Swenson F, Siuciak JA, Kaplow J, Thambisetty M, Zagouras P, Koroshetz WJ, Wan HI, Trojanowski JQ, Shaw LM; for the Biomarkers Consortium Alzheimer's Disease Plasma Proteomics Project Arch Neurol. 2012 Jul 16:1-8
Evaluation of Plasma Proteomic Data for Alzheimer Disease State Classification and for the Prediction of Progression From Mild Cognitive Impairment to Alzheimer Disease (2012) Llano DA, Devanarayan V, Simon AJ; The Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 2012 Sep 27
Plasma Based Markers of [(11)C] PiB-PET Brain Amyloid Burden (2012) Kiddle SJ, Thambisetty M, Simmons A, Riddoch-Contreras J, Hye A, Westman E, Pike I, Ward M, Johnston C, Lupton MK, Lunnon K, Soininen H, Kloszewska I, Tsolaki M, Vellas B, Mecocci P, Lovestone S, Newhouse S, Dobson R; for the Alzheimers Disease Neuroimaging Initiative PLoS One. 2012;7(9):e44260.
Plasma multianalyte profiling in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer disease (2012) Hu WT, Holtzman DM, Fagan AM, Shaw LM, Perrin R, Arnold SE, Grossman M, Xiong C, Craig-Schapiro R, Clark CM, Pickering E, Kuhn M, Chen Y, Van Deerlin VM, McCluskey L, Elman L, Karlawish J, Chen-Plotkin A, Hurtig HI, Siderowf A, Swenson F, Lee VM, Morris JC, Trojanowski JQ, Soares H; Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative Neurology. 2012 Aug 28;79(9):897-905