Apolipoprotein A-I (Apo A-I)

Apolipoprotein A-I (Apo A-I) is primarily found in high density lipoprotein (HDL) particles. It serves to prevent the accumulation of cholesterol loaded macrophages which deposit as foam cells on the arterial wall. This is the prominent early feature of atherosclerotic lesion formation that ultimately results in atherosclerosis. The primary function of Apo A-I is to activate LCAT within the HDL complex to catalyze the esterification of cholesterol. This results in a more soluble cholesterol-HDL complex, increasing the cholesterol transport capacity of the HDL particle for subsequent removal by the liver. Apo A-I is therefore a convenient marker for assessing the cholesterol clearing capacity of the blood. Studies have indicated that it is a better discriminator of angiographically documented coronary artery disease than HDL cholesterol.

Swiss-Prot Accession Number: P02647


Myriad RBM Publications Publications
Increased serum levels of leptin and insulin in both schizophrenia and major depressive disorder: A cross-disorder proteomics analysis (2019) Cakici N, Bot M, Lamers F, Janssen T, van der Haan L, Bahn S, Penninx BWJH, van Beveren NJM European Neuropsychopharmacology
Carbon nanotube and nanofiber exposure and sputum and blood biomarkers of early effect among U.S. workers (2018) Beard JD, Erdely A, Dahm MM, de Perio MA, Birch ME, Evans DE, Fernback JE, Eye T, Kodali V, Mercer RR, Bertke SJ, Schubauer-Berigan MK Environmental Internation 116 (2018)
Serum Apolipoprotein E and Other Inflammatory Markers Can Identify Non-Responding Patients to a Dendritic Cell Vaccine (2018) Leeman H, Kaminska E, Green D, Bodman-Smith M, Gravett A, Bodman-Smith K, Copier J, Coulton G, Fusi A, Dalgleish AG Translational Oncology
Apolipoprotein a-I and Paraoxonase-1 Are Potential Blood Biomarkers for Ischemic Stroke Diagnosis (2016) Walsh KB, Hart K, Roll S, Sperling M, Unruh D, Davidson WS, Lindsell CJ, Adeoye O Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases
High false-positive rate of a putative biomarker test to aid in the diagnosis of schizophrenia (2016) Wehler CA, Preskorn, SH Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Effects of Acute Endurance Exercise on Plasma Protein Profiles of Endurance-Trained and Untrained Individuals over Time (2016) Schild M, Eichner G, Beiter T, Zuegel M, Niess AM, Steinacker JM, Mooren FC Mediators of Inflammation
Assessment of Urine Proteomics in Type 1 Primary Hyperoxaluria*American Journal of Nephrology (2016) Brooks ER, Hoppe B, Milliner DS, Salido E, Rim J, Krevitt LM, Olson JB, Price HE, Vural G, Langman CB American Journal of Nephrology
Towards a Blood-Based Diagnostic Panel for Bipolar Disorder (2016) Haenisch F, Cooper JD, Reif A, Kittel-Schneider S, Steiner J, Leweke FM, Rothermundt M, Van Beveren NJM, Crespo-Facorro B, Niebuhr DW, Cowan DN, Weber NS, Yolken RH, Penninx BWJH, Bahn S Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Variation in Serum Biomarkers with Sex and Female Hormonal Status: Implications for Clinical Tests (2016) Ramsey JM, Cooper JD, Penninx BWJH, Bahn S Scientific Reports
Serum Levels of Apolipoproteins and Incident Type 2 Diabetes: A Prospective Cohort Study (2016) Brahimaj A, Ligthart S, Ikram MA, Hofman A, Franco OH, Sijbrands EJ, Kavousi M, Dehghan A Diabetes Care
New biomarkers for primary mitral regurgitation (2015) Deroyer C, Magne J, Moonen M, Le Goff C, Dupont L, Hulin A, Radermecker M, Colige A, Cavalier E, Kolh P, Pierard L, Lancellotti P, Merville MP, Fillet M Clin Proteomics
Development of a Blood-Based Molecular Biomarker Test for Identification of Schizophrenia before Disease Onset (2015) Chan MK, Krebs MO, Cox D, Guest PC, Yolken RH, Rahmoune H, Rothermundt M, Steiner J, Leweke FM, Van Beveren NJM, Niebuhr DW, Weber NS, Cowan DN, Suarez-Pinilla P, Crespo-Facorro B, Mam-Lam-Fook C, Bourgin J, Wenstrup RJ, Kaldate RR, Cooper JD, Bahn S Translational Psychiatry
Serum proteomic analysis identifies sex-specific differences in lipid metabolism and inflammation profiles in adults diagnosed with Asperger syndrome (2014) Steeb H, Ramsey JM, Guest PC, Stocki P, Cooper JD, Rahmoune H, Ingudomnukul E, Auyeung B, Ruta L, Baron-Cohen S, Bahn S Mol Autism. 2014 Jan 27;5(1):4
Effects of alcohol and polyphenols from beer on atherosclerotic biomarkers in high cardiovascular risk men: a randomized feeding trial (2014) Chiva-Blancha G, Magraner E, Condines X, Valderas-Martínez P, Roth I, Arranz S, Casa R, Navarro M, Hervas A, Sisó A, Martínez-Huélamo M, Vallverdú-Queralt A, Quifer-Rada P, Lamuela-Raventos R-M, Estruch R Elsevier - Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases 2014 Aug 2; doi: 10.1016/j.numecd.2014.07.008
Serum proteomic analysis identifies sex-specific differences in lipid metabolism and inflammation profiles in adults diagnosed with Asperger syndrome (2014) Steeb H, Ramsey JM, Guest PC, Stocki P, Cooper JD, Rahmoune H, Ingudomnukul E, Auyeung B, Ruta L, Baron-Cohen S, Bahn S Mol Autism. 2014 Jan 27;5(1):4
Serum proteomic analysis identifies sex-specific differences in lipid metabolism and inflammation profiles in adults diagnosed with Asperger syndrome (2014) Steeb H, Ramsey JM, Guest PC, Stocki P, Cooper JD, Rahmoune H, Ingudomnukul E, Auyeung B, Ruta L, Baron-Cohen S, Bahn S Mol Autism. 2014 Jan 27;5(1):4
Apolipoprotein H Expression Is Associated with Il28b Genotype and Viral Clearance in Hepatitis C Virus Infection (2014) Laird ME, Mohsen A, Duffy D, Mamdouh R, Lefouler L, Casrouge A, El-Daly M, Rafik M, Abdel-Hamid M, Soulier A, Pawlotsky J-M, Hézode C, Rosa I, Renard P, Mohamed MK, Bonnard P, Izopet J, Mallet V, Pol S, Albert ML, Fontanet A Journal of Hepatology
Plasma apolipoprotein A1 as a biomarker for parkinson's disease (2013) Qiang JK, Wong YC, Siderowf A, Hurtig HI, Xie SX, Lee VM, Trojanowski JQ, Yearout D, Leverenz J, Montine TJ, Stern M, Mendick S, Jennings D, Zabetian C, Marek K, Chen-Plotkin AS Ann Neurol. 2013 Feb 27
Modulation of cardiometabolic pathways in skin and serum from patients with psoriasis (2013) Mehta NN, Li K, Szapary P, Krueger J, Brodmerkel C J Transl Med. 2013 Aug 22;11(1):194.
Multiplex immunoassay analysis of plasma shows prominent upregulation of growth factor activity pathways linked to GSK3ß signaling in bipolar patients (2013) Haenisch F, Alsaif M, Guest PC, Rahmoune H, Dickerson F, Yolken R, Bahn S Journal of Affective Disorders
Plasma biomarkers of depressive symptoms in older adults (2012) Arnold SE, Xie SX, Leung YY, Wang LS, Kling MA, Han X, Kim EJ, Wolk DA, Bennett DA, Chen-Plotkin A, Grossman M, Hu W, Lee VMY, Mackin RS, Trojanowski JQ, Wilson RS, Shaw LM Translational Psychiatry (2012) 2, e65;
Plasma apolipoprotein levels are associated with cognitive status and decline in a community cohort of older individuals (2012) Song F, Poljak A, Crawford J, Kochan NA, Wen W, Cameron B, Lux O, Brodaty H, Mather K, Smythe GA, Sachdev PS PLoS One. 2012;7(6):e34078
Multipeptide immune response to cancer vaccine IMA901 after single-dose cyclophosphamide associates with longer patient survival (2012) Walter S, Weinschenk T, Stenzl A, Zdrojowy R, Pluzanska A, Szczylik C, Staehler M, Brugger W, Dietrich PY, Mendrzyk R, Hilf N, Schoor O, Fritsche J, Mahr A, Maurer D, Vass V, Trautwein C, Lewandrowski P, Flohr C, Pohla H, Stanczak JJ, Bronte V, Mandruzzato S, Biedermann T, Pawelec G, Derhovanessian E, Yamagishi H, Miki T, Hongo F, Takaha N, Hirakawa K, Tanaka H, Stevanovic S, Frisch J, Mayer-Mokler A, Kirner A, Rammensee HG, Reinhardt C, Singh-Jasuja H Nat Med. 2012 Jul 29. doi: 10.1038/nm.2883. [Epub ahead of print]
Effects of red wine polyphenols and alcohol on glucose metabolism and the lipid profile: A randomized clinical trial (2012) Chiva-Blanch G, Urpi-Sarda M, Ros E, Valderas-Martinez P, Casas R, Arranz S, Guill?n M, Lamuela-Ravent?s RM, Llorach R, Andres-Lacueva C, Estruch R Clinical Nutrition (online September 3)
Screening for New Biomarkers for Subcortical Vascular Dementia and Alzheimer’s Disease (2011) Öhrfelt A, Andreasson U, Simon A, Zetterberg H, Edman A, Potter W, Holder D, Devanarayan V, Seeburger J, Smith AD, Blennow K, Wallin A Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord Extra 1: 31—42.
Peripheral profiling analysis for bipolar disorder reveals markers associated with reduced cell survival (2011) Herberth M, Koethe D, Levin Y, Schwarz E, Krzyszton ND, Schoeffmann S, Ruh H, Rahmoune H, Kranaster L, Schoenborn T, Leweke MF, Guest PC, Bahn S Proteomics 11: 94-105.
Biomarker analysis of Morquio syndrome: Identification of disease state and drug responsive markers (2011) Martell L, Lau K, Mei M, Burnett V, Decker C, Foehr ED Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 2011, 6:84
Association of serum markers with improvement in clinical response measures after treatment with golimumab in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis despite receiving methotrexate: results from the GO-FORWARD study (2010) Visvanathan S, Rahman MU, Keystone E, Genovese M, Klareskog L, Hsia E, Mack M, Buchanan J, Elashoff M, Wagner C Arthritis Res Ther. 12:R211
Validation of a Multivariate Serum Profile for Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Using a Prospective Multi-Site Collection (2010) Seshaiah P, Bertenshaw GP, Chen TH, Bergstrom KJ, Zhao J, Mapes JP, Stephen LL, Amonkar S, McCollum ME, Miller BE, Roman LD, Karlan BY, Chalas E, DiSilvestro PA, Barter JF, Orr Jr JW, Bigsby IV GE, Holloway RW, Alvarez RD, Yip PF, Mansfield BC Nature Precedings Jul 2010.
Identification of distinct plasma biomarker signatures in patients with rapid and slow declining forms of COPD (2010) Devanarayan V, Scholand MB, Hoidal J, Leppert MF, Crackower MA, O'Neill GP, Gervais FG COPD 7: 51-58.
Validation of a Blood-Based Laboratory Test to Aid in the Confirmation of a Diagnosis of Schizophrenia (2010) Schwarz E, Izmailov R, Spain M, Barnes A, Mapes JP, Guest PC, Rahmoune H, Pietsch S, Leweke FM, Rothermundt M, Steiner J, Koethe D, Kranaster L, Ohrmann P, Suslow T, Levin Y, Bogerts B, (JM) van Beveren N, McAllister G, Weber N, Niebuhr D, Cowan D, Yolken RH, Bahn S Biomark Insights5: 39—47.
Human cytokine response to Texas crotaline envenomation before and after antivenom administration. (2010) Crocker P, Zad O, Milling T, Maxson T, King B, Whorton E Am J Emerg Med. 28: 871-9.
Plasma Protein Profiling Reveals Protein Clusters Related to BMI and Insulin Levels in Middle-Aged Overweight Subjects (2010) van Dijk SJ, Feskens EJM, Heidema AG, Bos MB, van de Rest O, Geleijnse JM, de Groot LCPGM, Muller M, Afman LA PLoS ONE 12: e14422.
Sex-specific serum biomarker patterns in adults with Asperger's syndrome (2010) Schwarz E, Guest PC, Rahmoune H, Wang L, Levin Y, Ingudomnukul E, Ruta L, Kent L, Spain M, Baron-Cohen S, Bahn S Mol Psychiatry. 2010 Sep 28. [Epub ahead of print]
The multiplex bead array approach to identifying serum biomarkers associated with breast cancer (2009) Kim BK, Lee JW, Park PJ, Shin YS, Lee WY, Lee KA, Ye S, Hyun H, Kang KN, Yeo D, Kim Y, Ohn SY, Noh DY, Kim CW Breast Cancer Res. 11: R22.
Molecular Response to Cetuximab and Efficacy of Preoperative Cetuximab-Based Chemoradiation in Rectal Cancer. (2009) Debucquoy A, Haustermans K, Daemen A, Aydin S, Libbrecht L, Gevaert O, De Moor B, Tejpar S, McBride WH, Penninckx F, Scalliet P, Stroh C, Vlassak S, Sempoux C, Machiels JP J Clin Oncol 27: 2751-2757.
Development and Preliminary Evaluation of a Multivariate Index Assay for Ovarian Cancer. (2009) Amonkar SD, Bertenshaw GP, Chen TH, Bergstrom KJ, Zhao J, Seshaiah P, Yip P, Mansfield BC PLoS ONE 4: e4599.
The metabolic state of diabetic monkeys is regulated by fibroblast growth factor-21. (2007) Kharitonenkov A, Wroblewski VJ, Koester A, Chen YF, Clutinger CK, Tigno XT, Hansen BC, Shanafelt AB, Etgen GJ Endocrinology 148: 774-81.