Association between IL-6 production in synovial explants from rheumatoid arthritis patients and clinical and imaging response to biologic treatment: A pilot study

Martin Andersen, Mikael Boesen, Karen Ellegaard, Kalle Söderström, Niels H. Søe, Pieter Spee, Ulrik G. W. Mørch, Søren Torp-Pedersen, Else M. Bartels, Bente Danneskiold-Samsøe, Lars Karlsson, Henning Bliddal

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The use of biologic disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (bDMARDs) significantly changed the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), however only 15 percent of these patients ever achieve remission. Thus, predicting patient responses to treatment and achieving disease control remains great challenges in RA. One possible solution put forth by the authors is the use of explants, in vitro culturing, of synovial tissue. This study examined the effects of bDMARDs on baseline RA synovial explants production of IL-6 with each individual’s clinical response to the same bDMARDs.

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Carbon nanotube and nanofiber exposure and sputum and blood biomarkers of early effect among U.S. workers

Nirupama Putcha, Gabriel G. Paul, Antoine Azar, Robert A. Wise, Wanda K. O’Neal, Mark T. Dransfield, Prescott G. Woodruff, Jeffrey L. Curtis, Alejandro P. Comellas, M. Bradley Drummond, Allison A. Lambert, Laura M. Paulin, Ashraf Fawzy, Richard E. Kanner, Robert Paine, III, MeiLan K. Han, Fernando J. Martinez, Russell P. Bowler, R. Graham Barr, Nadia N. Hansel, for the SPIROMICS investigators

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Carbon nanotubes and nanofibers are used in many fields, such as in manufacturing and information technology. Both of these carbon particles are physically similar to asbestos, and one type of carbon nanotube (MWCNT-7) have recently been found to be carcinogenic. Due to the variety of carbon nanotubes and nanofibers, accessing their potential toxicity to workers remains difficult. Animal studies have demonstrated that exposure to nanotubes and nanofibers can lead to oxidative stress and cardiovascular effects locally and systemically. This is the first industrywide cross-sectional study across 12 different sites in the United States. Of the 144 workers identified, 108 workers from 12 different companies provided blood and/or sputum samples. Using a custom biomarker panel, Myriad RBM analyzed collected sputum and blood samples for 30 and 31 biomarkers respectively. Primary pattern identification used exploratory factor analyses with varimax rotation.

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Lower serum IgA is associated with COPD exacerbation risk in SPIROMICS

Nirupama Putcha, Gabriel G. Paul, Antoine Azar, Robert A. Wise, Wanda K. O’Neal, Mark T. Dransfield, Prescott G. Woodruff, Jeffrey L. Curtis, Alejandro P. Comellas, M. Bradley Drummond, Allison A. Lambert, Laura M. Paulin, Ashraf Fawzy, Richard E. Kanner, Robert Paine, III, MeiLan K. Han, Fernando J. Martinez, Russell P. Bowler, R. Graham Barr, Nadia N. Hansel, for the SPIROMICS investigators

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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of death, not just in the US but also worldwide. Patients with COPD are at increased risk for various respiratory infections, which are main contributors to COPD exacerbations. Selective IgA deficiency is associated with higher risk of respiratory infections, however, a link between serum IgA levels and COPD disease activity has never been established. The goal of this study is to test the hypothesis that sub serum IgA levels is associated with increased morbidity in COPD patients, using participants from the SPIROMICS cohort. Serum was collected at enrollment, and IgA levels were measured using the Myriad RBM biomarker discovery platform. Deficient IgA was defined as <7mg/dL and subnormal level defined as ≤70mg/dL. Follow-up was conducted yearly at the clinic and quarterly by phone for up to 3 years.

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S100A12 and S100A8/9 Proteins are Biomarkers of Articular Disease Activity in Blau Syndrome

Lin Wang, Carlos D. Rosé, Kevin P. Foley, Jordi Anton, Brigitte Bader-Meunier, Philippe Brissaud, Gaelle Chédeville, Rolando Cimaz, Jorge Fernández-Martin, Catherin Guly, Eric Hachulla, Miroslav Harjacek, Friederike Mackensen, Rosa Merino, Consuelo Modesto, Antonio Naranjo Hernández, Christine Pajot, Athimalaipet V. Ramanan, Akaluck Thatayatikom, Caroline Thomée, Sebastiaan Vastert, Bart J. Votta, John Bertin, and Carin H. Wouters.

Rheumatology 2018
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Blau syndrome is an inherited auto-inflammatory disease that is characterized by arthritis, dermatitis, and uveitis. Patients also experience the presence of non-caseating granulomas, suggesting that the disease pathogenesis involves activated macrophages. The current management of Blau disease, using familiar drug classes such as corticosteroids, DMARDS and biologics, is not adequate. In order to assist in future drug development studies, biomarkers for Blau disease activity will be extremely useful. Phagocyte specific S100 proteins, such as S100A12, S100A8, and S100A9, have been proposed as biomarkers for Blau syndrome. These proteins are secreted by neutrophils and macrophages upon activation. This prospective cohort study will aim to correlate disease activity with inflammatory and S100 proteins.

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Supplement: Who Gets Immunotherapy for Cancer?

Managing Patient Expectations Requires Better Biomarkers and Companion Diagnostics

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Improving Cancer Immunotherapy Success Rates

A successful response to cancer immunotherapy is only partly a matter of immune cell dynamics within a tumor. If a tumor is to be reduced and cleared, cancer immunotherapy must also engage systemic immunity.

For example, successful cancer immunotherapy can activate a population of peripheral memory immune cells. Cancer immunotherapy can also incorporate responses at the tumor site influenced by interactions between the gut microbiome and the immune system.

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Effects of Canagliflozin Versus Glimepiride on Adipokines and Inflammatory Biomarkers in Type 2 Diabetes

Timothy Garvey, Luc Van Gaal, Lawrence A. Leiter, Ujjwala Vijapurkar, James List, Robert Cuddihy, Jimmy Ren, Michael J. Davies

Metabolism. 2018. doi: 10.1016/j.metabol.2018.02.002

Type 2 diabetic patients with increased visceral fat mass and insulin resistance are at a higher risk for cardiovascular disease and premature death. The increased visceral fat impairs adipose tissue function and is the result of combinatorial processes, including increased macrophage recruitment (MCP-1 production), increased inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-a secretion), and reduced anti-inflammatory factors (adipokine and adiponectin).

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