6 Ckine
O00585 6Ckine (CCL21) is named for its six conserved cysteine residues that distinguish it from typical chemokines that contain only four cysteines. It is highly expressed in the spleen, appendix, and the high endothelial venules of lymph nodes. 6Ckine stimulates chemotaxis of thymocytes and activated T cells and shows preferential activity towards naive T-cells. Unlike most CC chemokines, 6Ckine is not chemotactic for monocytes. 6Ckine||Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 21(CCL21)

B Lymphocyte Chemoattractant
 
O43927 B Lymphocyte Chemoattractant (BLC, CXCL13) is a chemokine that, through its interaction with the receptor CXCR5, is a chemoattractant for B lymphocytes. BLC controls the organization of B cells within follicles of lymphoid tissues. It is secreted by dendritic cells, and is expressed highly in the liver, spleen, lymph nodes, and gut of humans. B Lymphocyte Chemoattractant|BLC|Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 13 (CXCL13)

B Lymphocyte Chemoattractant Simoa
O43927 B Lymphocyte Chemoattractant (BLC, CXCL13) is a chemokine that, through its interaction with the receptor CXCR5, is a chemoattractant for B lymphocytes. BLC controls the organization of B cells within follicles of lymphoid tissues. It is secreted by dendritic cells, and is expressed highly in the liver, spleen, lymph nodes, and gut of humans. B Lymphocyte Chemoattractant Simoa|BLC Simoa

C-C motif chemokine 15
Q16663 CCL15 is expressed in T and B lymphocytes, NK cells, monocytes and monocyte derived dendritic cells. It is chemotactic for T-cells and monocytes, but not neutrophils, eosinophils, or B-cells. CCL15 acts mainly via CCR1. Serum CCL15 may be a specific proteomic biomarker of hepatocellular carcinoma and lung cancer survival time. C-C motif chemokine 15|CCL15|MIP-5, MIP-1 delta

Chemokine CC-4
O15467 Chemokine CC-4 (HCC-4; Hemofiltrate Chemokine-4; CCL16; Ncc-4). It is also known as liver-expressed chemokine (LEC) and lymphocyte monocyte chemoattractant. HCC-4 has been reported to signal through chemokine receptors CCR1, CCR2, CCR5 and CCR8. This chemokine is chemotactic for human monocytes and dendritic cells but not neutrophils. The presence of CCL16 in normal plasma at relatively high concentrations may modulate inflammatory responses.

Eotaxin-1
P51671 Eotaxin (CCL11) is produced by epithelial cells, endothelial cells, and eosinophils. Because its expression is enhanced in allergic inflammation, eotaxin is thought to play an important role in allergy and asthma. The positions of four cysteine residues in eotaxin place it in the C-C family of chemokines, along with chemokines such as RANTES, MCP-3, and MIP-1 alpha. Eotaxin-1||Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 11 (CCL11)

Eotaxin-2
O00175 Eotaxin (CCL11) is produced by epithelial cells, endothelial cells, and eosinophils. Because its expression is enhanced in allergic inflammation, eotaxin is thought to play an important role in allergy and asthma. The positions of four cysteine residues in eotaxin place it in the C-C family of chemokines, along with chemokines such as RANTES, MCP-3, and MIP-1 alpha. Eotaxin-2||CCL24|Myeloid progenitor inhibitory factor 2

Eotaxin-3
Q9Y258 Eotaxin (CCL11) is produced by epithelial cells, endothelial cells, and eosinophils. Because its expression is enhanced in allergic inflammation, eotaxin is thought to play an important role in allergy and asthma. The positions of four cysteine residues in eotaxin place it in the C-C family of chemokines, along with chemokines such as RANTES, MCP-3, and MIP-1 alpha. Eotaxin-3||Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 26 (CCL26)

Growth-Regulated alpha protein
P09341 Growth-Regulated alpha protein (GROalpha, CXCL1, GROa) is a 107 amino acid protein that may play a role in inflammation since it has chemotactic activity for neutrophils. Growth-Regulated alpha protein|GRO-alpha|Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1)

Interferon gamma Induced Protein 10
P02778 Interferon gamma Induced Protein 10 (IP-10; 10kDa interferon-gamma-induced protein; CXCL10) is induced in a variety of cells in response to IFN-gamma. IP-10 inhibits bone marrow colony formation and angiogenesis, stimulates NK and T cell migration, regulates T cell maturation, and modulates adhesion molecule expression. IP-10 expression has been associated with HIV infection and levels have been shown to be elevated in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Interferon gamma Induced Protein 10|IP-10|Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10 (CXCL10)

Interferon gamma Induced Protein 10
Interferon gamma Induced Protein 10 (IP-10; 10kDa interferon-gamma-induced protein; CXCL10) is induced in a variety of cells in response to IFN-gamma. IP-10 inhibits bone marrow colony formation and angiogenesis, stimulates NK and T cell migration, regulates T cell maturation, and modulates adhesion molecule expression. IP-10 expression has been associated with HIV infection and levels have been shown to be elevated in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Interferon gamma Induced Protein 10|IP-10

Interferon gamma Induced Protein 10, long
P02778 Interferon gamma Induced Protein 10 (IP-10; 10kDa interferon-gamma-induced protein; CXCL10) is induced in a variety of cells in response to IFN-gamma. IP-10 inhibits bone marrow colony formation and angiogenesis, stimulates NK and T cell migration, regulates T cell maturation and modulates adhesion molecule expression. IP-10 induction to be involved in many disorders including autoimmune diseases, kidney injury, cancer and importantly, infectious diseases such as hepatitis C. For hepatitis C patients, measurement of the short and long forms have been used to predict the response to therapy. IP-10 is cleaved by the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP4), resulting in increased amounts of the truncated (short) form of the protein that exhibits lower biological activity. Interferon gamma Induced Protein 10, long|IP-10, long

Interferon gamma Induced Protein 10, short
P02778 Interferon gamma Induced Protein 10 (IP-10; 10kDa interferon-gamma-induced protein; CXCL10) is induced in a variety of cells in response to IFN-gamma. IP-10 inhibits bone marrow colony formation and angiogenesis, stimulates NK and T cell migration, regulates T cell maturation and modulates adhesion molecule expression. IP-10 induction to be involved in many disorders including autoimmune diseases, kidney injury, cancer and importantly, infectious diseases such as hepatitis C. For hepatitis C patients, measurement of the short and long forms have been used to predict the response to therapy. IP-10 is cleaved by the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP4), resulting in increased amounts of the truncated (short) form of the protein that exhibits lower biological activity. Interferon gamma Induced Protein 10, short|IP-10, short

Interferon-inducible T-cell alpha chemoattractant
O14625 Interferon-inducible T-cell alpha chemoattractant (ITAC, CXCL11) is highly expressed in peripheral blood leukocytes, pancreas and liver, with moderate levels in thymus and spleen. Gene expression of ITAC/CXCL11 is strongly induced by IFN-gamma and IFN- beta, and weakly induced by IFN-alpha. ITAC/CXCL11 is chemotactic for activated T cells. It may play role in CNS diseases and skin immune responses. Interferon-inducible T-cell alpha chemoattractant|ITAC|Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 11 (CXCL11)

Interleukin-8
P10145 Interleukin-8 (IL-8, CXCL8) is a chemokine produced by macrophages that attracts neutrophils, basophils, and T-cells, but not monocytes. It may be of clinical relevance in psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis. Elevated concentrations are observed in psoriatic scales which may explain the high proliferation rate observed in these cells. It may also be a marker of different inflammatory processes and probably plays a role in the pathogenesis of chronic polyarthritis since excessive amounts of this factor are found in synovial fluids. Interleukin-8|IL-8

Macrophage inflammatory protein 3 beta
 
Q99731 Macrophage inflammatory protein 3 beta (MIP-3 beta; CCL19, MIP-3ß) is constitutively expressed in various lymphoid tissues (including thymus, lymph nodes, appendix and spleen). Its expression is downregulated by IL10. MIP-3 beta may play a role in normal lymphocyte recirculation and homing, as well as regulating the encounters between DC and T cells Macrophage inflammatory protein 3 beta|MIP-3 beta|Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 19 (CCL19)|ELC

Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-1 alpha
 
P10147 Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-1 alpha (MIP-1 alpha, CCL3, MIP-1a) is one of two MIP proteins that are the major factors produced by macrophages following their stimulation with bacterial endotoxins. Both proteins are involved in the cell activation of human granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils) and appear to be involved in acute neutrophilic inflammation. Both forms of MIP-1 stimulate the production of reactive oxygen species in neutrophils and the release of lysosomal enzymes. They also induce the synthesis of other pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6, and TNF in fibroblasts and macrophages. Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-1 alpha|MIP-1 alpha|Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3 (CCL3)

Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-1 beta
 
P13236 Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-1 beta (MIP-1 beta, CCL4, MIP-1ß) is one of two major factor MIP proteins produced by macrophages following their stimulation with bacterial endotoxins. Both proteins are involved in the cell activation of human granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils) and appear to be involved in acute neutrophilic inflammation. Both forms of MIP-1 stimulate the production of reactive oxygen species in neutrophils and the release of lysosomal enzymes. They also induce the synthesis of other pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6 and TNF in fibroblasts and macrophages. Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-1 beta|MIP-1 beta|Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 4 (CCL4)

Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-3 alpha
 
P78556 Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-3 alpha (MIP-3 alpha; CCL20, MIP-3a) is a chemotactic factor that attracts lymphocytes and neutrophils, but not monocytes. It may play a role in modulating inflammatory cell recruitment to the CNS and therefore contribute to tissue injury in ischemic stroke and autoimmune diseases. Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-3 alpha|MIP-3 alpha|Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 20 (CCL20)

Macrophage-Derived Chemokine
 
O00626 Macrophage-Derived Chemokine (MDC; CCL22) is expressed highly in macrophages and in monocyte-derived dendritic cells. High expression is detected in normal thymus and lower expression in lung and spleen. MDC is expressed by a subset of macrophages within regions of advanced atherosclerotic plaques that contain plaque micro-vessels. MDC is a potent chemoattractant for neutrophilic granulocytes, enhancing their bactericidal activity and stimulating the release of lysozyme. Macrophage-Derived Chemokine|MDC|Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 22 (CCL22)

Monocyte Chemotactic Protein 1 Simoa
 
P13500 Monocyte Chemotactic Protein 1 (MCP-1; CCL2) plays a role in the recruitment of monocytes to sites of injury and infection. MCP-1 has been found in the joints of people with rheumatoid arthritis where it may serve to recruit macrophages and perpetuate the inflammation in the joints. MCP-1 is also elevated in the urine of lupus patients as a sign of inflammation of the kidney. MCP-1 has also been called small inducible cytokine A2 (SCYA2) and monocyte chemotactic and activating factor (MCAF). Monocyte Chemotactic Protein 1 Simoa|MCP-1 Simoa|Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2)|MCP-1 |Monocyte Chemotactic Protein 1

Monocyte Chemotactic Protein 2
 
P80075 Monocyte Chemotactic Protein 2 (MCP-2; CCL8), is a chemotactic factor that attracts monocytes, lymphocytes, basophils and eosinophils. MCP-2 may play a role in neoplasia and inflammatory host responses. This protein can bind heparin. The processed form MCP-2(6-76) does not show monocyte chemotactic activity, but inhibits the chemotactic effect most predominantly of CCL7, and also of CCL2 and CCL5 and CCL8. Highest expression of MCP-2 is found in the small intestine and peripheral blood cells. Intermediate levels seen in the heart, placenta, lung, skeletal muscle, thymus, colon, ovary, spinal cord and pancreas. Low levels seen in the brain, liver, spleen and prostate. It is induced by IFNG/IFN-gamma, mitogens, and IL-1. Monocyte Chemotactic Protein 2|MCP-2|Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 8 (CCL8)

Monocyte Chemotactic Protein 3
P80098 Monocyte Chemotactic Protein 3 (MCP-3; CCL7) is a member of the family of CC chemokines and is produced by tumor cell lines and macrophages. It has been implicated in immunity-associated tumor rejection and in a number of pathologies involving immune response. At low concentrations, MCP-3 inhibits infection by some HIV-1 strains and at higher concentrations, enhances viral replication. It also plays a role in autoimmunity and other inflammatory conditions. Increased levels are found in MS, asthma, chronic sinusitis, ulcerative colitis, and cirrhosis. It is a chemotactic factor that attracts monocytes and eosinophils, but not neutrophils. MCP-3 binds to CCR1, CCR2, and CCR3. Monocyte Chemotactic Protein 3|MCP-3|Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 7 (CCL7)

Monocyte Chemotactic Protein 4
 
Q99616 Monocyte Chemotactic Protein 4 (MCP-4; CCL13) is a chemotactic factor that attracts monocytes, lymphocytes, basophils and eosinophils, but not neutrophils. Signals through CCR2B and CCR3 receptors. Plays a role in the accumulation of leukocytes at both sides of allergic and non-allergic inflammation. May be involved in the recruitment of monocytes into the arterial wall during the disease process of atherosclerosis. May play a role in the monocyte attraction in tissues chronically exposed to exogenous pathogens. MCP-4 is widely expressed, found in small intestine, thymus, colon, lung, trachea, stomach, and lymph node. Low levels are seen in the pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. MCP-4 is induced by IL-1 and TNF alpha. Monocyte Chemotactic Protein 4|MCP-4|Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 13 (CCL13)

Monokine Induced by Gamma Interferon
 
Q07325 Monokine Induced by Gamma Interferon (MIG; CXCL9) is a small cytokine belonging to the family of CXC chemokines. MIG is a T-cell chemoattractant whose expression is induced by interferon gamma. MIG production has proven to be a sensitive measure of antigen-specific IFN production. It affects the growth, movement, and activation state of cells that participate in immune and inflammatory response. MIG is chemotactic for activated T-cells and binds to CXCR3. Monokine Induced by Gamma Interferon|MIG|Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 9 (CXCL9)

Myeloid Progenitor Inhibitory Factor 1
 
P55773 Myeloid Progenitor Inhibitory Factor 1 (MPIF-1; CCL23) is a highly basic protein, highly chemotactic for resting T-cells and monocytes and slightly chemotactic for neutrophils. It is found predominately in lung and liver tissue but also found in bone marrow and placenta. It has been found to inhibit activity of hematopoietic progenitor cells. High levels in adult lung, liver, skeletal muscle, and pancreas. Moderate levels are found in fetal liver, adult bone marrow, and placenta. The short form is the major species and the longer form was detected only in very low abundance. CCL23(19-99), CCL23(22-99), CCL23(27-99), CCL23(30-99) are found in high levels in synovial fluids from rheumatoid patients. Myeloid Progenitor Inhibitory Factor 1|MPIF-1|Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 23 (CCL23)

Neutrophil Activating Peptide 2
 
P02775 Platelet basic protein (PBP, CXCL7), which is found in the alpha-granules of human platelets is proteolytically cleaved to form Neutrophil activating peptide 2 (NAP-2), connective tissue activating protein III (CTAP-III) and beta-thrombogulin (beta-TG). NAP-2 binds CXCR2 and chemoattracts and activates neutrophils. Serum NAP-2 is increased in lung and hepatic cancers. Neutrophil Activating Peptide 2|NAP-2|CXCL7

Pulmonary and Activation-Regulated Chemokine
 
P55774 Pulmonary and Activation-Regulated Chemokine (PARC; CCL18) is also referred to as MIP-4 (Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-4). PARC is expressed in human atherosclerotic plaques and is expressed predominantly by CD68(+) macrophages. It is a chemotactic factor that attracts lymphocytes but not monocytes or granulocytes. PARC may be involved in B-cell migration into B-cell follicles in lymph nodes. PARC attracts naive T-lymphocytes toward dendritic cells and activated macrophages in lymph nodes, has chemotactic activity for naive T-cells, CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells and thus may play a role in both humoral and cell-mediated immunity responses. Pulmonary and Activation-Regulated Chemokine|PARC|Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 18 (CCL18)

Stromal cell-derived factor-1
 
P48061 Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1; CXCL12) has two forms, SDF-1 alpha and SDF-1 beta. They are encoded by a single gene and arise by alternative splicing. The two proteins are identical except for the additional four amino acids present in the carboxy-terminus of SDF-1 beta. SDF-1 is a chemoattractant for T-lymphocytes and monocytes, but not neutrophils. SDF-1 is a ligand for the CXCR4 receptor that functions as a co-receptor for lymphocytetropic HIV-1 strains and plays a role in the inhibition of infection in HIV. Stromal cell-derived factor-1|SDF-1|Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12 (CXCL12)

Stromal Cell-Derived Factor-1 alpha
 
P48061-2 Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1; CXCL12) has two forms, SDF-1 alpha and SDF-1 beta. They are encoded by a single gene and arise by alternative splicing. The two proteins are identical except for the additional four amino acids present in the carboxy-terminus of SDF-1 beta. SDF-1 is a chemoattractant for T-lymphocytes and monocytes, but not neutrophils. SDF-1 is a ligand for the CXCR4 receptor that functions as a co-receptor for lymphocytetropic HIV-1 strains and plays a role in the inhibition of infection in HIV. Stromal Cell-Derived Factor-1 alpha|SDF-1 alpha

T Lymphocyte-Secreted Protein I-309
 
P22362 T Lymphocyte-Secreted Protein I-309 (I-309; CCL1), also known as small inducible cytokine A1, is a small glycoprotein secreted by activated T cells that belongs to a family of inflammatory cytokines known as chemokines. It is chemotactic for monocytes but not for neutrophils. CCL1 attracts monocytes, NK cells, immature B cells, and dendritic cells by interacting with a cell surface chemokine receptor called CCR8. T Lymphocyte-Secreted Protein I-309|I-309

T-Cell-Specific Protein RANTES
 
P13501 T-Cell-Specific Protein RANTES (RANTES; CCL5) is chemotactic for T-cells, human eosinophils and basophils and plays an active role in recruiting leukocytes into inflammatory sites. It also activates the release of proteins from eosinophils such as eosinophilic cationic protein. It changes the density of eosinophils and makes them hypodense, which is thought to represent a state of generalized cell activation and is associated most often with diseases such as asthma and allergic rhinitis. T-Cell-Specific Protein RANTES|RANTES

Thymus and activation-regulated chemokine
 
Q92583 Thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC; CCL17) is chemotactic for T-lymphocytes but not monocytes or granulocytes. It may play a role in T-cell development in thymus and in trafficking and activation of mature T-cells. It is expressed at high levels in thymus and at low levels in the lung, colon, and small intestine. It binds to the chemokine receptors CCR4 and CCR8 and plays important roles in T-cell development in thymus as well as in trafficking and activation of mature T-cells. Thymus and activation-regulated chemokine|TARC|C-C motif chemokine 17|CCL17|Small-inducible cytokine A17

Thymus-Expressed Chemokine
 
O15444 Thymus-Expressed Chemokine (TECK; CCL25) is specifically expressed by thymic dendritic cells so high levels are found in the thymus and small intestine. This secreted cytokine is involved in T-cell development. Recombinant protein shows chemotactic activity on thymocytes, macrophages, THP-1 cells, and dendritics cells but is inactive on peripheral blood lymphocytes and neutrophils. TECK elicits its effects by binding the chemokine receptor CCR9. Thymus-Expressed Chemokine|TECK|Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 25 (CCL25)